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References / Endnotes

Home Page

  1. Falls Management Company, http://www.fallsmanagement.com (viewed November 2007), Page 1.
  2. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Region Nine Nature Centers, www.dec.ny.gov/education/1846.html, Page 1 (under the heading, "Beaver Island State Park Nature Center").
  3. Ibid., Page 10 (under the heading, "Tifft Nature Preserve").
  4. "Conservation, Fatal Attraction," Selections From National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 2004, Pages 1-2.
  5. "Emory building draped in black to save birds, Many crash into environmentally friendly design with soaring glass windows," The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, November 23, 2007.

Canadian Concerns

  1. Falls Management Company, http://www.fallsmanagement.com (viewed November 2007), Page 1.
  2. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Region Nine Nature Centers, http://www.dec.ny.gov/education/1846.html, Page 1 (under the heading, "Beaver Island State Park Nature Center").
  3. Based on a telephone inquiry with Niagara Regional Police Services, Ontario, survey conducted July 27, 2007.
  4. "Gambling's high stakes include rise in suicides, Link is so strong, Canada calls it a public health crisis," The Buffalo News, June 24, 2006.
  5. "ATLANTIC CITY; Hard Labor," The New York Times, September 3, 1995.
  6. "For Casino Employees, Pace Takes a Personal Toll," The New York Times, February 14, 1989.
  7. "Ontario- Casino profits to be halved in 3 years," Gamblor's World, October 1, 2006 [Editorial in response to, "Casino profits to be halved in 3 years, Niagara, Windsor in most danger," The Ottawa Citizen, September 7, 2006.]
  8. "Casino profits to be halved in 3 years, Niagara, Windsor in most danger," The Ottawa Citizen, September 7, 2006.
  9. "Stratford fighting drop in American visitors," The London [Ontario] Free Press, July 16, 2007.
  10. "Chamber survey reveals disappointment with casinos' impact on city" [quoting an article originally featured in the Niagara Falls Review], Niagara Falls Casinos and Gaming and Niagara Falls News, May 30, 2007.
  11. "Sobering statistics on poverty in Niagara," Niagara Falls Review, August 29, 2007.
  12. Earl L. Grinols, David B. Mustard, "Business Profitability versus Social Profitability: Evaluating Industries with Externalities, The Case of Casinos," Managerial and Decision Economics, Vol. 22, Pages 143-162, 2001, http://www.maquah.net/clara/casinos/profitability.pdf (May 29, 2007). See pages 144, 155 that reference the 1.9 to 1 ratio for casino costs vs. benefits.

Worldwide Concerns

  1. Falls Management Company, http://www.fallsmanagement.com (viewed November 2007), Page 1.
  2. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Region Nine Nature Centers, http://www.dec.ny.gov/education/1846.html, Page 1 (under the heading, "Beaver Island State Park Nature Center").
  3. Based on a telephone inquiry with Niagara Regional Police Services, Ontario, survey conducted July 27, 2007.
  4. "Fingerprint Dispute Dooms Border Site, U.S. Stance Angers Canada, Businesses," Washington Post, May 24, 2007.

Birds Killed by Glass Buildings in Ontario

  1. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Region Nine Nature Centers, http://www.dec.ny.gov/education/1846.html, Page 1 (under the heading, "Beaver Island State Park Nature Center").
  2. "Conservation, Fatal Attraction," Selections From National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 2004, Pages 1-2.

Fallsview and the Casino Industry

  1. "'Near-riot' erupts at casino," The Buffalo News, November 13, 2006.
  2. "THE DARK SIDE OF THE FALLS," ADV-NEWS, February 6, 2006, http://groups.google.com/group/rec.gambling.craps (viewed September 2007).
    • 4. Ibid.
  3. Based on a telephone inquiry with Niagara Regional Police Services, Ontario, survey conducted July 27, 2007.
  4. See Endnote 2.
  5. "Casino profits to be halved in 3 years, Niagara, Windsor in most danger," The Ottawa Citizen, September 7, 2006.
  6. "Canadian Roulette," Canada Safety Council (citing a 2001 Ontario study), http://www.safely-council.org/info/community/gambling.html, (viewed October 2007).
  7. Earl Grinols, David B. Mustard, "Business Profitability versus Social Profitabiliity: Evaluating Industries with Externalities, The Case of Casinos," Managerial and Decision Economics, Vol. 22, Pages 143-162, 2001, http://www.maquah.net/clara/casinos/profitability.pdf (May 29, 2007). See pages 144, 155 that reference the 1.9 to 1 ratio for casino costs vs. benefits.
    • 72. Ibid.
  8. "Sobering Statistics on poverty in Niagara," Niagara Falls Review, August 29, 2007.
    • 71. Ibid.
  9. "Conservation, Fatal Attraction," Selections From National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 2004, Pages 1-2.
  10. "Food Falls to Non-profits," Wasted Food, June 7, 2007, http://www.wastedfood.com/2007/06/07/food-falls-to-non-profits/ (viewed November 2007).
  11. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Region Nine Nature Centers, http://www.dec.ny.gov/education/1846.html, Page 1 (under the heading, "Beaver Island State Park Nature Center").
  12. Ibid., Page 10 (under the heading, "Tifft Nature Preserve").
  13. "Conservation, Fatal Attraction," Selections From National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 2004, Pages 1-2.
    • 15. Ibid.
  14. "Emory building draped in black to save birds, Many crash into environmentally friendly design with soaring glass windows," The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, November 23, 2007.
  15. See Endnote 13.
  16. "The House Never Loses and Maryland Cannot Win: Why Casino Gaming is a Bad Idea," Report of [Maryland] Attorney General, J. Joseph Curran, Jr., October 16, 1995 (re-endorsed July 14, 2005), www.oag.state.md.us/Reports/casinogambling.pdf, Pages 16-18.
    • 22. Ibid., Page 7.
  17. Ibid., Page 6.
  18. Renee M. Cunningham-Williams et al., "Prevalence and Predictors of Pathological Gambling: results from the St. Louis Personality, Health and Lifestyle (SLPHL) Study," September 14, 2004.
  19. "Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Ontario," Report by Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse and the Responsible Gambling Council (Ontario), December 4, 2001.
  20. "Life, death in Vegas a crapshoot, Drug overdose suicide rates above average," The Washington Times, July 6, 2007.
  21. Earl L. Grinols, "Income and Jobs Impact of Casino Gambling," Presented to Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Conference; "Casino Development: How Would Casinos Affect New England's Economy?" June 1, 1995, Page 4.
  22. See Endnote 16.
  23. "Gambling's high stakes include rise in suicides, Link is so strong, Canada calls it a public health crisis," The Buffalo News, June 24, 2006.
    • 25. Ibid.
  24. "Canadian Roulette" Canada Safety Council, http://www.safety-council.org/info/community/gambling.html (viewed October 2007).
  25. See Endnote 23.
  26. "The Personal Bankruptcy Crisis, 1997: Demographics, Causes, Implications & Solutions," SMR Research Corporation, 1997, Page 117.
  27. "Gambling Bankruptcies Soar," Detroit News, December 3, 1995.
  28. Durand Jacobs, "Problem Gamblers and White Collar Crime," Paper presented at Seventh International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, Reno, Nevada, August 1987, Page 274.
  29. H.R. Lesieur and K. Puig, "Insurance Problems and Pathological Gambling," Journal of Gambling Behavior, Summer 1987, Pages 123-136.
  30. John Warren Kindt, "U.S. National Security and the Strategic Economic Base: The Business/Economic Impacts of the Legalization of Gambling Activities," St Louis University Law Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Winter 1995).
  31. "Children's fund blown in casino should be repaid, say gambling foes," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), May 4, 2005.
  32. "Ontario addicted to gambling revenue," The Ottawa Citizen, November 3, 2004 (citing a study by Rob Williams and Rob Wood at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, May 2004).
  33. "Casinos wager on families for the future," USA Today, August 31, 1994.
  34. Ibid.
  35. "IMPACT OF GAMBLING, Economic Effects More Measurable Than Social Effects," U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), April 2000, Page 47.
    • 48. Ibid., Page 42.
    • 59. Ibid., Page 21.
    • 68. Ibid., Page 17.
    • 70. Ibid., Page 17.
  36. "Casinos in Florida: An Analysis of the Economic and Social Impacts," Executive Office of the Governor, Office of Planning and Budgeting, Tallahassee, Florida, 1994, Page 70.
  37. "Casino fined for underage gambling, again," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), May 29, 2001.
  38. "Niagara Falls—Casino Niagara was fined $62,500 yesterday because a 14-year old girl slipped by security and gambled," from the London [Ontario] Free Press, October 24, 2003.
  39. "Atlantic City Aiming Higher as Casinos Slip," New York Times, March 19, 2007.
  40. Citizens for a Better Buffalo, http://www.betterbuffalo.com (viewed July 2007), Page 4.
  41. Rina Gupta and Jeffery L. Derevensky, J. L., "Familial and Social Influences on Juvenile Gambling Behavior," Journal of Gambling Studies, 1997, (13), Pages 179-192.
  42. Matthew J. Carlson, Ph.D. and Thomas L. Moore, Ph.D., "Adolescent Gambling in Oregon," Report to the Oregon Gambling Addiction Treatment Foundation, December 1998, Ch. 4.
  43. "Gambling, Fatigue and Drowsy Driving," Canada Safety Council, http://www.safety-council.org/info/traffic/gambling.html (viewed October 2007).
  44. "Towns feel effect of Conn. [Connecticut] Casinos Traffic, crime on rise with more visitors, jobs," The Boston Globe, July 22, 2007.
  45. "Criminal activity a reality in casinos, police say," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), November 9, 2004.
  46. "Traffickers laundering dirty cash at casinos," The Record-Kitchener, Ontario, November 20, 2003.
  47. "950 organized crime groups in Canada: report," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), August 17, 2007.
  48. See Endnote 35.
  49. "Book Closes on Mob Try to Infiltrate Louisiana Gambling," The Advocate [Baton Rouge], October 13, 1996.
  50. "Former W. Va. [West Virginia] Senate President Sentenced to 5 Years, Fined $10,000," Associated Press, December 14, 1989.
  51. "New Tarnish on Arizona's Image; Bribe Case Has State 'in Shock'," USA Today, February 13, 1991.
  52. "Ontario-Casino profits to be halved in 3 years," Gamblor's World, October 1, 2006, in an Editorial in response to: "Casino profits to be halved in 3 years, Niagara, Windsor in most danger," The Ottawa Citizen, September 7, 2006.
  53. "For Casino Employees, Pace Takes a Personal Toll," New York Times, February 14, 1989.
  54. "Atlantic City; Hard Labor," New York Times, September 3, 1995.
  55. "Slots fill niche, deal blow to table games," USA Today, January 10, 2008.
  56. "Growing concern over casinos, Different agencies, politicians note 'shift' in casinos' approach to community groups," Niagara Falls Review, May 7, 2007.
    • 65. Ibid.
    • 66. Ibid.
    • 73. Ibid.
    • 74. Ibid.
  57. "City, casinos forge new 'spirit of co-operation'," Niagara Falls Casinos and Gaming and Niagara Falls News, June 1, 2007 (quoting an article in the Niagara Falls Review).
  58. Pennsylvania Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority (PICA) Staff Report on FY08-FY12 Five Year Plan (Gaming Costs), July 26, 2007, Pages 21-22, http://www.planphilly.com/node/1766 (viewed October 2007).
    • 69. Ibid., Page 3.
  59. See Endnote 34.
  60. "Taking the Gamble," University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Center for Policy Analysis, power point presentation, 2007, http://www.umassd.edu/cfpa/docs/taking_the_gamble.ppt (viewed November 2007).
  61. Patricia A. Stokowski, "Riches and Regrets: Betting on Gambling in Two Colorado Mountain Towns," University of Colorado Press, 1996, Page 159.
  62. J. Terrence Brunner, Executive Director, Better Government Association, "Statement on Riverboat Gambling to the Metro Ethics Coalition Project," Better Government Association, October 1994.
  63. Michael K. Madden, "Gaming in South Dakota: A Statistical Description and Analysis of its Socioeconomic Impacts," University of South Dakota, November 1991, Page 36.
  64. "Chamber survey reveals disappointment with casinos' impact on city," Niagara Falls Casinos and Gaming and Niagara Falls News (http://www.accessniagara.com), May 30, 2007 (quoting an article in the Niagara Falls Review).
  65. See Endnote 56.
  66. See Endnote 56.
  67. "Stratford fighting drop in American visitors," The London [Ontario] Free Press, July 16, 2007.
  68. See Endnote 35.
  69. See Endnote 58.
  70. See Endnote 35.
  71. See Endnote 8.
  72. See Endnote 7.
  73. See Endnote 56.
  74. See Endnote 56.
  75. "Fingerprint Dispute Dooms Border Site, U.S. Stance Angers Canada, Businesses," Washington Post, May 24, 2007.
  76. "Take a hint from falls: Casinos can crowd Nature," Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, May 6, 2007.
  77. "Beauty, romance, history and adventure flow through Niagara Falls," Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, May 15, 2005.

Other Natural Wonders

  1. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Heritage List, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list (viewed September, 2007).
  2. No Casino Gettysburg, http://www.nocasinogettysburg.com (viewed December 2007).